operation is an operation that, if invoked twice in succession with identical parameter values, has the same effect as a single invocation. For example, the statement
is idempotent whereas the statement
Ice allows you to optionally
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keyword informs the Ice run time that a single invocation of the
operation has the same effect as two successive invocations of
with the same parameter value. Obviously,
(which adds one to the current value) is not idempotent.
So, why would the Ice run time care about this? The answer is that Ice provides
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: it guarantees that, if a client makes a single operation invocation, the invocation will either be delivered to the server exactly once or not at all. This may seem self-evident. However, it implies that under no circumstances will a single invocation by a client ever result in two invocations in the server.
The at-most-once guarantee is important: if Ice were not to provide this guarantee, a single invocation of
by a client could result in two invocations of the operation in the server, with the net effect that the value would be incremented twice instead of once.
As long as everything works well, the Ice run time does not care if an operation is idempotent or not: call dispatch on the client and server side are exactly the same for idempotent and normal operations. However, when things go wrong, the operation mode (normal or idempotent) becomes important. Consider the following scenario:
At this point, the client-side run time is in a difficult situation because it cannot know exactly when the connection was lost:
In other words, in the preceding scenario, the client-side run time has no idea whether or not the operation ended up executing in the server. Either is possible, and there is no way to find out.
In many cases, the Ice run time will automatically retry a failed request before propagating any error back to the application. This also applies to lost connections: the Ice run time will automatically re-establish lost connections and re-send failed requests, but only if it can guarantee that doing so will not violate at-most-once semantics.
In order to support community development, the creation of affordable housing, and increased job opportunities, the Council has authorized the Mayor to dispose of District-owned real property that the Council has determined is no longer needed for public use. See D.C. Official Code § 10-801 et. seq.
To do this, the Mayor submits a surplus resolution and a disposition resolution for approval by the Council. The surplus resolution is used to determine that the real property is no longer required for public purposes. The disposition resolution details how the Mayor plans for the real property to be developed. As part of the disposition resolution, the Mayor must submit an executed term sheet, memorandum of understanding, or land disposition agreement between the District and the selected developer. These documents describe, among other things, the major business terms of the transaction, the method of disposition, any Certified Business Enterprise requirements and any green building requirements. The Office of the Deputy Mayor for Planning and Economic Development acts as the lead agency in development projects. Below, please find technical documents that include surplus and disposition resolutions, land disposition agreements, and other documents for DMPED projects. If you have any questions, please contact the FOIA Officer. Click here for more DMPED Land Disposition Agreements and other Technical DocumentsClick here for more DMPED Land Disposition Agreements and other Technical Documents
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1300 H Street, NE
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Placement in a Chinese language class follows the AMES department placement policy .
To maximize your learning opportunities and enjoy yourself in a learning community that is conducive to everyone in your class, students who are interested in taking a Chinese language course at Dukehave to follow the procedures below for placement.
If you have further questions regarding the courses below 100-level, please consult with Professor Tianshu He, the Coordinator of First Year Chinese, at [email protected] . If you have questions about the Chinese language curriculum, Duke Study in China program, or further questions regarding the courses above 100-level, please consult the Director of the Chinese Program Professor Carolyn Lee at [email protected] .
The self-placement guidelines below are divided into two sections: “Placement Guidelines for Regular-Track Curriculum” and “Placement Guidelines for Alternative-Track Curriculum.” Students who receives a score of 4/5 on the AP Chinese exam will automatically pass
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(Intermediate Chinese) and be eligible to take a Chinese course at CHINESE 305 (Advanced Intermediate Chinese) or above. Students who speak a Chinese dialect at home but barely understand Mandarin Chinese may take nike free run 1 womens clothing
(First-Year Chinese I) in the regular-track curriculum. Please note that students who lived in a Chinese speaking country such as China, Singapore or Taiwan into their teenage years and received schooling higher than the elementary level in any Chinese speaking country are considered to be native speakers. The student who finished secondary school is only eligible for courses at or above CHINESE 455 (Modern Chinese Culture: Narratives of Home and Abroad) to fulfill language requirements.
Enroll in CHINESE 101 (First-Year Chinese I):
Enroll in CHINESE 102 (First-Year Chinese II):
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Enroll in CHINESE 204 (Intermediate Chinese):
Enroll in CHINESE 305 (Advanced Intermediate Chinese):
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