» How Marijuana Tolerance Builds Up — And How to Bring It Down
The latest research from cannabis neuroscientists uncovers the mechanism behind the tolerance for cannabis, and shows us that it doesn’t take long for the brain to return to complete normalcy.
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authored by Deepak Cyril D’Souza et al, a veritable cannabis expert from the Yale School of Medicine, has uncovered how a tolerance to cannabis happens, and roughly how long it takes for it to return to a normal level. This latest piece of research was a collaboration project between prestigious organization such as the Schizophrenia and Neuropharmacology Research Group of the Connecticut Healthcare System, Yale University School of Medicine, the New York University Langone Medical Center and the Harvard Medical School Massachusetts General Hospital.
The age-old problem with cannabis requires people to smoke or dab more after the first time. Unlike opiates, overdosing on cannabis is difficult and THC does not become toxic until it reaches incredibly high levels in the body, equivalent to eating pounds and pounds of pure active ingredient in one sitting. Though a smoker might need to consume successively consume more cannabis as time goes on, it does not spiral out of control; someone could smoke the same amount of weed everyday for their entire life and still get high.
The experiment used males of ages 18-35 that were “cannabis dependent” according to the
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. They used positron emission tomography (a PET scan) to observe a radiotracer ligand for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 ), the receptor in our brains triggered by THC in cannabis to induce its psychoactive effects. The PET was able to see where exactly CB 1 receptors are located in the brain and how densely distributed they were throughout each section.
What did the experiment find? “In chronic moderate daily cannabis smokers, CB1R availability is decreased in most brain regions. Significant CB1R upregulation begins within 2 days of abstinence and continues over 4 weeks.” In other words, a cannabis smoker has less CB 1 receptors in their brain than non-smokers do, but they start to bounce back after just two days of abstinence, and return to almost – normal levels after four weeks of abstinence. The fact that CB 1 receptors did not fully bounce back after four weeks the authors attributed to their small sample size that might not have adequately assessed the initial levels of CB 1 before they stopped smoking.
North America (December 5, 2017)
– Trappist Brewery Koningshoeven, better known as
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, has produced its first ever collaboration beer Ora et Labora with Brunswick Bierworks . The beer was produced in Toronto as the first of the Brunswick Bierworks Handshake Brews series.
Ora et Labora translates as “Pray and Work”, which is the creed of the Trappist Monks. The beer is a stern 7.5% ABV “New World Double Bock” and was brewed by La Trappe’s brouwmeester Lodewijk Swinkels alongside Brunswick Bierworks master brewer Christian Riemerschmid von der Heide.
The collaboration weaves traditional krausen fermentation with a mighty maltbill and a unique blend of Opal, Loral, Mandarina Bavaria and Ontario Newport hops sourced from the Americas and Europe; bridging the two worlds of brewing. The recipe that Lodewijk and Christian have designed is “double bock” in strength. The ingredients and process with re-fermentation is like a wheat double bock – however the fermentation and yeast is like grand cru.
La Trappe is honored to donate proceeds from sales to the Kyotera project, its relief effort for the Kyotera Hospital in Uganda.
“The good cause of this collaboration brew is the Kyotera Hospital in Uganda,” says Anthony van Hecke –
Export Director for La Trappe. “They need financial help to fight against Aids. Especially women and children who are infected by HIV will benefit from this project. The health care in the district of Rakai needs more medical attention and their specialized team will welcome the proceeds of this collaboration brew to compete against AIDS/HIV in the outskirts of the hospital.”
Hecke continues, “One of the three major rules to be an Authentic Trappist Brewery is to support those in need through financial assistance. We hope this collaboration beer heightens awareness of the important role our Monks fulfill in the community and around the world.”
Lanny Hoff, SVP – Brands Manager of Artisanal Imports adds, “We are excited to work not only with Lodewijk and the La Trappe team, but also the excellent group at Brunswick Bierworks. They make wonderful beer and deserve to be a household name in the United States. We are proud that proceeds from the sale of Ora et Labora will benefit the Kyotera project. Artisanal Imports is setting aside a portion of our sales as well, for a double-benefit.”Read more
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Les Liliacees. Paris: Didot Jeune, 1802-1816.Les Liliacees.
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Pierre-Joseph Redoute is recognized as the most talented botanical artist the world has known. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries he lived in Paris, the cultural and scientific center of Europe. Interest in plant illustration was at its height and his career flourished.
Redoute was from a family of Belgian painters. He was born in 1759, the second of three brothers. He left home when he was thirteen, determined to make a living as an itinerant interior decorator and painter of portraits and religious memorabilia. As he traveled, he studied the paintings of Flemish and Dutch artists. After 10 years, he joined his older brother in Paris and worked with him as a theater set designer.
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Still interested in floral painting, Redoute visited public gardens in Paris to study and sketch the flowers. At the Jardin du Roi, he attracted the attention of botanist Charles Louis L'Heritier du Brutelle. L'Heritier became a mentor to Redoute, taught him the fundamentals of flower structure necessary for botanical illustration, and employed him as an illustrator for his Stirpes Novae (published 1785-1791). Redoute contributed 54 illustrations to this work (Hunt 1958, v.2, cvi) . This was the beginning of Redoute's career.
In 1786, L'Heritier suggested that Redoute accompany him to London. In London Redoute learned the art of stipple engraving and color printing that would give him the technical expertise he needed to produce the beautiful illustrations found in his later works.
Another artist who influenced Redoute was the Dutch artist, Gerard van Spaendonck who had gained a favorable reputation in Paris as a painter and teacher at the Jardin des Plantes. Van Spaendonck perfected the technique of painting with pure water color which Redoute adopted and popularized.
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After Napoleon came to power in France, Redoute was among the staff who worked to realize Josephine Bonaparte's dream of filling the gardens of Malmaison with the rarest plants from around the world. The engravings from Redoute's drawings during the early years of the 19th century are considered to be his best work. His drawings illustrate Etienne Pierre Ventenat's Jardin de Malmaison (1803-04), Aime Bonpland's Description des Plantes Rares Cultivees a Malmaisonet a Navarre (1812-17), Les Liliacees (1802-16) and Les Roses (1817-24). Les Liliacees is considered by some to be his masterpiece.
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